All corrections made to a published article require the authorization of the Editor-in-Chief, who also determines the extent of the corrections. Minor corrections are made directly to the original article, while the following provisions apply for major changes:
An error introduced by the publisher that undermines the integrity of the record version, the reputation of the authors, or the journal's reputation, is classified as an Erratum. This is a statement from the authors of the original paper briefly describing any corrections resulting from errors or omissions. Any impact on the conclusions of the paper should be mentioned. The corrected article remains in the online journal, with a notice of the erratum given. The erratum is made freely available to all readers and is linked to the corrected article.
An addendum is a notification of the addition of information to an article. Addenda are published when the editors decide that the addendum significantly contributes to the reader's understanding of the published contribution. Addenda include an Editorial Expression of Concern, an editorial statement alerting readers to serious concerns with the published paper. This is typically updated with another amendment once further information becomes available.
Addenda do not contradict the original publication. However, if the author inadvertently omitted significant information at the time of publication, this material can be published as an addendum. According to the journal's policy, addenda may be peer-reviewed and are usually subject to oversight by the journal's editors. Addenda related to the article content are published rarely and only when the journal editors decide that an addendum is crucial to the reader's understanding of a significant part of the published article. All addenda are linked to the original article they pertain to.
A Retraction is a notice that the paper should not be regarded as part of the scientific literature. Retractions are issued if there is clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, which can be due to misconduct or an honest error. Retraction occurs if: a) the findings have been published elsewhere without proper referencing, permission, or justification; b) the work is plagiarized; c) the work reports unethical research.
To maintain the integrity of the record, the retracted article remains in the online journal, with a notice of retraction given. This is made freely available to all readers and is linked to the retracted article. Retractions can be published by the authors when they have discovered substantial scientific errors; in other cases, the Editor-in-Chief or the publisher may conclude that retraction is appropriate. In all cases, the retraction indicates the reason for the action and who is responsible for the decision. If a retraction is made without the unanimous agreement of the authors, that fact is also noted.
In rare and extreme cases involving legal infringement, the publisher or the Editor-in-Chief may redact or remove an article. Bibliographic information about the article will be retained to ensure the integrity of the scientific record.
A corrigendum is a notification of a significant error made by the authors of the article. All corrigenda are normally approved by the editors of the journal. A corrigendum, or Author Correction, is a notification of a significant error made by the author(s) that affects the publication record, the scientific integrity of the paper, or the reputation of the authors or the journal.